trade and technical training required for the Nazi economy. 7 10 Spectacles of "low quality including those of an erotic or pornographic nature, were however an exceptionthose were to be popularized to appease the population and to show the world the "real" Polish culture as well. Both regimes endorsed a systematic program of genocide.' a b c d e f g Wrobel, Piotr, (1999 The Devil's Playground: Poland in World War. 86 It is estimated that in some rural areas, the educational coverage was actually improved (most likely as courses were being organized in some cases by teachers escaped or deported from the cities). A b Salmonowicz 1994,. . These works were reprinted on underground presses, and those intended for public display were plastered to walls or painted on them as graffiti.
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Cafes, restaurants and private homes were turned into galleries or museums; some were closed, with their owners, staff and patrons harassed, arrested or even executed. Most, polish schools were closed, and those that remained open saw their curricula altered significantly. 138 Polish Ministry of Information, Concise Statistical Year-Book of Poland, London, June 1941,. . In addition to publication of news (from intercepted Western radio transmissions there were hundreds of underground publications dedicated to politics, economics, education, and literature (for example, Sztuka i Naród ). Mahwah, NJ: Lawrence Erlbaum. Retrieved on Kisling 2001,. . 7 In 1941, German policy evolved further, calling for the complete destruction of the Polish people, whom the Nazis regarded as "subhumans" ( Untermenschen ). Jana Kochanowskiego, isbn CS1 maint: Extra text: authors list ( link ) Further reading edit Mężyńskia, Andrzej; Paszkiewicz, Urszula; Bieńkowska, Barbara (1994 Straty bibliotek w czasie II wojny światowej w granicach Polski z 1945 roku. 85 Underground Warsaw University educated 3,700 students, issuing 64 masters and 7 doctoral degrees. Il se manifeste sur le plan juridique, politique, économique, social, médical et normatif.
11 German propaganda specialists invited critics from neutral countries to specially organized "Polish" performances that were specifically designed to be boring or pornographic, and presented them as typical Polish cultural activities. 11 Several non-public indexes of prohibited books were created, and over 1,500 Polish writers were declared "dangerous to the German state and culture". 78 Education edit Further information: Education in Poland during World War II In response to the German closure and censorship of Polish schools, resistance among teachers led almost immediately to the creation of large-scale underground educational activities. 27275 a b c d Salmonowicz 1994,. . Books by Tadeusz Borowski, Adolf Rudnicki, Henryk Grynberg, Miron Białoszewski, Hanna Krall and others; films, including those by Andrzej Wajda ( A Generation, Kanał, Ashes and Diamonds, Lotna, A Love in Germany, Korczak, Katyń TV series. 87 Students at the underground schools were often also members of the Polish resistance. The Soviets' targets included persons who often traveled abroad, persons involved in overseas correspondence, Esperantists, philatelists, Red Cross workers, refugees, smugglers, priests and members of religious congregations, the nobility, landowners, wealthy merchants, bankers, industrialists, and hotel and restaurant owners.
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46 The public destruction of Polish books was not limited to those seized from libraries, but also included those books that were confiscated from private homes. 96 It was perceived as a much more serious issue in the annexed territories, as it hindered the process of Germanization; involvement in the underground education in those territories was much more likely to result in a sentence to a concentration camp. Similarly, Aleksander Wat, initially sympathetic to communism, was arrested by the Soviet nkvd secret police and exiled to Kazakhstan. 108 Although it was impossible to operate an underground radio station, underground auditions were recorded and introduced into German radios or loudspeaker systems. 23 Some art was shipped to German museums, such as the planned Führermuseum in Linz, while other art became the private property of Nazi officials. Polish culture during, world War II was suppressed by the occupying powers of, nazi Germany and the, soviet Union, both of whom were hostile. 46 Polish literature faced a similar fate in territories annexed by Germany, where the sale of Polish books was forbidden.
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7 Immediately following the invasion of Poland in September 1939, the Nazi German government implemented the first stages (the "small plan of Generalplan Ost. Polish Underground Movement (19391945) Study Trust (pumst). Alexandre Baril explique que dans «les dictionnaires de langue française, en sciences pures, ladjectif cis est employé comme antonyme de trans, le premier référant à un élément qui est du même côté, le second qui, dans ses origines latines signifie. 67 The Soviets sought to recruit Polish left-wing intellectuals who were willing to cooperate. Ze studiów nad typologią portretu renesansowego, in: Rafael i jego spadkobiercy.